Your Estate Plan May Be Worthless

WHAT!? Why? There are eight reasons why the estate plan you thought was fine may not ensure that your wishes are carried out.

1. Missing Parts of the Plan
You may be missing some critical parts of an effective estate plan. At a minimum, all clients should have a Will, financial power of attorney, and an advanced medical directive, that have been reviewed by an attorney within the last few years or after any major recent life event changes.
2. Outdated Information
You have not updated your beneficiaries or executors since you created the plan. We get it! Thinking about dying is depressing, but you have to if you want to make sure that your wishes are carried out. That means adding grandchild or removing beneficiaries who may have passed away. Certainly, you want to make sure the executor of your estate is someone you trust, able to serve and still alive and kicking.
3. Forgotten to Allocate Ownership of Valuables
You may have forgotten to include the ownership of jewelry, family heirlooms, paintings or even recently acquired valuable items in your estate plan. Not detailing who gets what is likely to end up with the family embroiled in a war on who gets ownership of your engagement ring or that Monet painting.
4. Neglected Life Insurance Beneficiaries and IRA’s
You may have forgotten to review your life insurance policies and IRA’s for years. What happens if you’ve divorced and remarried, but your old insurance policy names the first spouse as beneficiary? What happens if the policy hasn’t been funded properly and has lapsed? What if your beneficiary should not receive an outright distribution
5. Named a Family Member or Close Friend as Trustee
Naming someone you trust to be your executor or trustee is good idea, however, you must also make sure the person is aware of what the role requires and the fiduciary responsibilities it entails. We often see people named as executors or trustees who are unprepared to accept the role or are even incapable of carrying it out. You might consider appointing a third party, such as a Licensed Fiduciary or trust company to administer your estate. Yes it hurts to pay for this service, but you may save money and hurt feelings instead.
6. Tax Laws Have Changed
It should come as no surprise that tax laws change all the time. Estates created, but not amended to take these changes into account, can cause significant loss of wealth for your beneficiaries.
7. Passing Retirement Accounts to the Estate Rather Then to the Individual
There are significant benefits to passing on retirement savings through a beneficiary designation. Passing directly to a beneficiary avoids the probate process, which saves time and costs and beneficiaries are permitted to keep the majority of the assets in the tax-advantaged accounts.
8. You Moved to a New State
Every state has different laws for governing estate plans. If you move to a new state, it is critical you have an estate planning attorney review your documents to ensure you are in compliance with specific state laws.

In short, estate planning isn’t a one-time process. In general, you should review your estate plan after any major life event, or every few years to make sure your estate remains in compliance with local, state and federal law.

The Senior Safe Act

The Senior Safe Act, signed into law by President Trump earlier this year, is designed to protect our elders from financial abuse from either within a family or support system, or by scam artists preying upon them. Tens of billions of dollars each year are illegally taken from US seniors and these numbers only reflect the crimes being reported.

Issue (Percentage of cases reported)
Third-party abuse/exploitation (27%)
Account distributions (26%)
Family member, trustee or power of attorney taking advantage (23%)
Diminished capacity (12%)
Combined diminished capacity and third-party abuse (12%)
Fraud (6.30%)
Elder exploitation (5.70%)
Friend, housekeeper or caretaker taking advantage (<1%) Excessive withdrawals (<1%) SOURCE: North American Securities Administrators Association

Often a senior does not report financial abuse or identity theft because they are unaware, embarrassed, or worse, they think that someone will deem them mentally unfit and they might be “put away” as a consequence of having been exploited. While these are real issues and fears experienced by elderly people, the scale of financial exploitation is so great it has to be addressed. This is why the enacted Senior Safe Act, coupled with the Elder Abuse Prevention and Prosecution Act (signed into law October 2017), as well as two Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) rule changes (which have already taken effect), will provide the legal protections and financial industry framework our senior population need and deserve. One of the most important aspects of the new FINRA rules is the ability for member firms to place a temporary hold on disbursement of funds or securities when there is a reasonable belief that a senior is experiencing financial exploitation, thus protecting assets before they are taken from the senior. This new rule, in conjunction with the Senior Safe Act, can help keep seniors’ assets from vanishing.
The Senior Safe Act, which was originally initiated by Rep. Bruce Poliquin of Maine, is based on the already existing program in that state with the same name. Similar to the Maine program, the federal legislation allows insurance and financial advisors to report incidence of suspected cases of financial fraud involving their senior clients to financial institutions, who in turn could pass the suspicions on to the proper authorities.

As long as the insurance and financial institutions elevate concerns in good faith and their employees have received the proper training, the law will protect the institution and its workers from liability in a civil or administrative proceeding where information had been presented to authorities in the hopes of protecting a senior client from financial abuses or identity theft. The training includes a collaborative effort between state and federal regulators, financial firms and legal organizations, credit unions, broker-dealers, insurance companies and agencies, and investment advisers to educate employees on how to spot and report suspected elder financial abuse.

Seniors who are most active in communicating with a trusted professional third party about their finances are the least likely to fall victim to financial fraud. Counterintuitively, most financial fraud happens to seniors who do not display signs of cognitive impairment. Senior participation with professional and properly trained employees of financial institutions is the back-story of this bill. All of the legal protections of the Senior Safe Act will achieve nothing if there is no participation by seniors.

It is advisable to find a trusted professional adviser to help protect seniors against financial abuse and identity theft. The Senior Safe Act should make it much easier for seniors to find a properly trained individual who will monitor their financial accounts and be able to report signs of potential trouble to authorities. That trusted individual will be able to identify the warning signs of common scams and educate seniors as to how best to protect themselves; such as how often to check credit ratings for signs of identity theft, reviewing financial statements, identifying common phone and online scams, and more. The laws are in place to help seniors stay protected. Get protected by becoming more involved in your own personal financial world. Contact our office today and schedule an appointment to discuss how we can help you with your planning and participation.

Eight Things to do When a Person Dies

When someone passes away, it is always an emotional time for family members. Unfortunately, it is also a time when someone in the family should think clearly, because there are things you should do immediately that will help make the experience easier for everyone in the family.

#1: Get Access to the Home
Gaining access to the home or apartment may be tricky, especially if you don’t have keys. A landlord of a rental property may or may not allow you access without court approval and you may need to enter the premises in the presence of a municipal employees.

Once you are there, you may only be allowed in once, so get everything you need immediately. Gather everything valuable – jewelry, family heirlooms, artwork, etc. Maybe even find that coffee can of money stashed under the mattress, and put it all in a safety deposit box or turn it over to the executor of the estate. Make a list of all valuables that you removed or put that iPhone to work and take pictures.

#2: Find the Documents
Once in the home, gain access to all the important documents you might need … that includes banks accounts, tax returns, insurance documents, financial statements, credit cards, retirement plans and more. That might means digging through tons of paperwork in the home to find what you need.

#3: Change the Locks
Once you have access to the property, you should have the locks changed. You never know who might have a key.

#4: Freeze all Financial Accounts
Protect the assets by freezing all financial accounts. This will stop any automatic payments of bills, and prevent scammers from stealing mail, accessing credit card info and more.

#5 Forward Mail
Go to the post office and have the deceased mail forwarded to you or to the executor of the estate. This is the best way to get information about accounts and other matters. You may require a letter from the administering attorney stating your authority.

#6: Deal with Utilities
If the deceased owned a home, you’ll need to decide what to do about utilities (turn off gas, water, electric, phone, etc.). If the deceased rented a property, work with the landlord to make decisions about the apartment. Keeping the property maintained during this time is important.

#7 Hire an Attorney and Accountant
Unless you want to do all the legal work and prepare the tax returns personally, hire an attorney and an accountant to help you prepare all the documents that will be needed to close out the estate.

#8 Talk to Family
It is important to talk to other family members and heirs so that you all agree on a course of action to take with the estate. Working together in probate matters saves time and money; contesting an estate can lead to huge legal fees, long wait times, and severe disruption of the family.

Common Mistakes When Planning for a Disabled Family Member

There are 58 million Americans five years of age or older that are identified as special needs making them the largest single minority in this country. The majority of federal and state benefits available to help persons with disabilities are needs based, meaning income and assets are strictly limited and can often by misinterpreted, resulting in costly mistakes.

One of the most common mistakes a parent or loved one makes is disinheriting their family member with special needs. The reason is often because the family believes other siblings will step in and take care of the disabled family member. However, this can lead to numerous problems, especially if the non-disabled sibling gets sued, divorced, or otherwise loses the money left to them.
Another common mistake is failing to create a properly drafted trust to qualify the disabled family member for government benefits than can help pay for costly medical and/or living expenses. Qualifications for government benefits like Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or Medicaid dictate that the disabled individual has no more than $2,000 in assets. If your disabled loved one has assets above this threshold, they will have to be “spent down” to qualify for government assistance or otherwise protected in a properly drafted trust.

Well-meaning friends and extended family may not understand the complexity of disability benefits and give a disabled loved one money or assets that would disqualify them for state and federal benefits. It is especially difficult if the disabled person already has benefits and becomes disqualified because the “needs based” review discovered additional funding putting them over the $2,000 asset limit. It is best to avoid this situation as it is a big hassle to re-qualify your dependent for government assistance.

Be wary of crowdfunding sites like GoFundMe to benefit your loved one with special needs. In the absence of qualified legal planning, these donations can disqualify SSI, Medicaid, food stamps and section 8 housing. A well-meaning fund campaign could cut the benefits of a disabled person and make their living circumstances worse than before.

What to do? Plan ahead! There are several ways to provide for your special needs dependent and stay within government guidelines for additional benefits. One of the best ways is to establish a special needs trust that has the specific purpose of supplementing federal and state assistance programs. By doing so, a disabled loved one can benefit from government programs, and have additional money to supplement what those programs provide.

There are strict rules when it comes to creating special needs trusts for a disabled family member. There are also restrictions on what the money can be used for. We can help you determine what type of trust is best based on you and your loved one’s particular circumstances. Give us a call at your convenience to set up a time to discuss your situation further.

Can Creditors Grab Probate Assets?

When someone passes away, one of the first questions I am often asked is if creditors can take part of the estate assets to settle debts. Another related question is whether or not the heirs are personally responsible for paying things like credit card bills, the mortgage, phone and power bills, etc.

Probate and Trusts
First, let’s talk about how probate works. When someone passes away, assets that are in the name of the deceased only and which have no beneficiary or payable on death go into probate. If the deceased had a joint bank account or joint tenant rights on a home with his or her spouse for example, then the asset pass directly to the joint account holder outside of probate.

Who pays the bills?
So now let’s answer what rights creditor have against estate assets. A creditor can file a claim against an estate for payment of a debt – credit cards, mortgage, and other outstanding debts. The heirs are not directly responsible for paying the debts from their own pocket. The executor or personal representative must pay the creditors from probate assets before final distribution of money is made to the heirs. If all assets are used to pay estate debts, then the heirs receive no disbursement of funds.

Be warned that if the executor makes the mistake of distributing funds before a creditor can fil a claim or lawsuit against the heirs for the return of the money, or against the executor if the individual refuses to file a petition to have the heir turn over the money to the estate.

What if there are no probate assets?
So what happens if there is no probate money to pay creditors? This might happen if all of the assets were in joint names or had beneficiaries. In this case, a creditor may look to those non-probate assets to pay debts. Let’s assume that an individual put assets into a joint bank account that would pass to the surviving spouse or heir in order to avoid payment of the debt. The creditor can file a claim for that that or creditors could demand that the heirs (beneficiaries) who inherited those assets use them to pay some or all of the debt. This is not likely to happen unless the debt is substantially enough to motivate the creditor to go down this road.

Keep in mind that not all assets are handled the same way. Retirement accounts and insurance proceeds with designated beneficiaries provide more protection from creditors. Money in revocable trusts are generally subject to creditor claims, while assets in irrevocable trusts – when structured properly – are generally exempt from such claims.

If you would like to learn more about how to protect your estate from creditors, please feel free to give us a call.

End of Life Planning: Preserving Quality

We lawyers prepare powers-of-attorney documents so that when our clients can no longer act for themselves, the documents will convey on other trusted people the authority to act on our clients’ behalf.

But when it comes to actually using those documents at the time of a health-care crisis, clear and powerful documents are just the beginning. The decision-points can (and must) be put down on paper in advance, but when it comes to end-of-life situations, the clarity on which we lawyers thrive can be very hard to find.

Sitting in her lawyer’s office, the client may have been quite certain about health-care decisions. She does not want her life prolonged by a battery of aggressive treatments, where these would not preserve her quality of life. She does not want blood transfusions, dialysis, repeated courses of antibiotics and chemotherapy, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or breathing and feeding tubes. She does not want to die inert in the ICU, surrounded by machines and strangers. She wants to die at home, surrounded by loved ones, at a time when she retains presence of mind to make her peace.

But that goal doesn’t just happen from wishing it and stating it. It happens with additional careful preparation for the realities. As the end of life approaches, the clarity we lawyers enjoy can be elusive. When a person gets a prognosis of two to five years (maybe), where, along that continuum, would be the time to start declining aggressive treatment? When there’s always one more intervention that may (or may not) produce a good result? When one decision could create an ever-widening array of complications? When, step by step, the patient becomes less and less able to exercise autonomy, and where treatment decisions by caregivers are not in line with the care the patient was clear about when she was sitting in the lawyer’s office?

No matter how clear the powers-of-attorney documents, with all these imponderables, the patient can end up in a situation many miles away from what she wanted. And there’s no possible do-over.

Powerful and clear power-of-attorney documents are an essential first step and we lawyers are glad to take care of that part. Beyond that, though, thorough preparation is essential.

Consider that the best result may be one that cares for comfort right now, in the moment. The question is not necessarily about how long life can be prolonged. The question may be, rather, how comfort can be maintained – in this moment, and then the next moment, and the next. The question is how life can be made better right now. Watch a video by palliative-care physician B.J. Miller, on why this is so important, here.

Make concrete plans. These include specifying what you want to happen if you’re no longer able to live independently; choosing wisely whom you want to act for you, to make sure your plans will be followed; being ready with your health-care documents before you find yourself deposited in the emergency room or ICU; and seeking the reassurance that your loved ones will be cared-for when you’re no longer there. Judy MacDonald Johnson has prepared simple, forthright worksheets to help with this process, here. She speaks about these worksheets in this moving video.

There is no doubt that the process in safeguarding quality of life at the end of it is possibly the most challenging of all. But if that process can create as much pleasure as possible through an extremely difficult time of life, and if forthrightly engaging in that process would facilitate a passing more in line with what we would envision, the worth of the process will be felt. The transition will be smoother and more meaningful for the dying person, and a kinder legacy will be left behind for those who accompany us on this journey.
Please don’t hesitate to reach out if we can help you or a loved one with a health care plan.

Appropriate Documents For End-of-Life Care Decisions

You may think your living will is in order, including instructions regarding resuscitation commonly referred to as a DNR (do not resuscitate). While your wishes in a living will may be appropriately documented, that does not guarantee the instructions will be carried out as you stated. The frightening truth is that mistakes about your end-of-life instructions are made while you are at your most vulnerable. Dr. Monica Williams-Murphy, medical director of advance-care planning and end-of-life education for Huntsville Hospital Health System in Alabama has said, “Unfortunately, misunderstandings involving documents meant to guide end-of-life decision-making are surprisingly common.”

The underlying problem is that doctors and nurses have little if any training at all in understanding and interpreting living wills, DNR orders, and Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) forms. Couple the medical professionals’ lack of training with communication breakdowns in high-stress environments like a hospital emergency ward where life and death decisions are often made within minutes, and you have scenarios that can lead to disastrous consequences.

In some instances, mix-ups in end-of-life document interpretation have seen doctors resuscitate patients that do not wish to be. In other cases, medical personnel may not revive a patient when there is the instruction to do so resulting in their death. Still other cases of “near misses” occur where problems were identified and corrected before there was a chance to cause permanent harm.

There are some frightening worst-case scenarios, yet you are still better off with legal end-of-life documents than without them. It is imperative to understand the differences between them and at what point in your life you may change your choices based on your age or overall health. To understand all of the options available it’s important to meet with trusted counsel for document preparation and to review your documented decisions often as you age. In particular, have discussions with your physician and your appointed medical decision-maker about your end-of-life documents and reiterate what your expectations are. These discussions bring about an understanding of your choices before you may have an unforeseen adverse health event, and provides you the best advocates while you are unable to speak for yourself.

There are several documents that may be appropriate as part of your overall plan. Each of those are discussed below, and we are available to answer any questions you may have about them.
A living will is a document that allows you to express your wishes about your end-of-life care. For example, you can document whether you want to be given food and hydration to be kept comfortable, or whether you want to be kept alive by artificial means.

A living will is not a binding medical order and thus will allow medical staff to interpret the document based on the situation at hand. Input from your family and your designated living will appointee are also taken into account in your best decision making strategy while you are incapacitated. A living will becomes activated when a person is terminally ill and unconscious or in a permanent vegetative state. Terminal illness is defined as an illness from which a person is not expected to recover even though they are receiving treatment. If your illness can be treated this would be regarded as a critical but not terminal illness and would not activate the terms of your living will.

Do not resuscitate orders (DNRs) are binding medical orders that are signed by a physician. This order has a specific application to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and directs medical professionals to either administer chest compression techniques or not in the event you stop breathing or your heart stops beating. While your living will may express a preference regarding CPR it is not the same thing as a DNR order. A DNR order is specifically for a person who has gone into cardiac arrest and has no application to other medical assistance such as mechanical ventilation, defibrillation, intubation, medical testing, intravenous antibiotic or other medical treatments. Unfortunately, many DNR orders are wrongly interpreted by medical professionals to mean not to treat at all.

Physician orders for life-sustaining treatment forms (POLST forms) are specific sets of medical orders for a seriously ill or frail patient who may not survive a year. This form must be signed by a physician, physician assistant or nurse practitioner to be legally binding. The form will vary from state to state and of the three instructive documents the POLST is the most detailed about a patient’s prognosis, goals, and values, as well as the potential benefits and risks various treatment options may bring about.

A power of attorney for health care decision, sometimes referred to as a health care directive, allows you to name an agent to make decisions for you if you are unable to. Unlike a living will which only covers end-of-life decisions, a power of attorney for health care decisions allows the agent to act at any time that you cannot make decisions for yourself.

We can help you determine which documents best suit your current needs, and help you clearly state your wishes in those documents. We look forward to hearing from you and helping you with these important planning steps.

A Power of Attorney Protects Your Right to Vote

Your right to vote is a fundamental lynchpin of what it means to be a citizen – yet you could lose your right if you become a ward in a guardianship. Having a strong power of attorney is essential to avoid that drastic, but little-known, consequence.

A power of attorney gives a trusted person the authority to act on your behalf. Support like that is especially important if there is any question that you might have become unable to make decisions for yourself. Sometimes, however, that situation is far from clear. Elderly people can be dragged into unnecessary guardianship proceedings not of their choice.

This can happen, for example, if you are temporarily hospitalized and a not-so-friendly person – maybe related to you by a second marriage – sees an opportunity to seize control of your finances. Any adult person can file a petition seeking a guardianship. If you had designated your trusted agent before hospitalization, your agent could defend against that kind of predatory danger.

The danger is real. You could lose not only your money and your independence, but also your right to vote. For example, until relatively recently a provision in the Arkansas Constitution stated that “no idiot or insane person shall be entitled to the privileges of an elector.” That provision had the force of law until 2009. And again in Arkansas, once a person is placed in a guardianship, court approval is required before the ward is permitted to vote. Laws like these are by no means exceptional. Many states disqualify from voting persons who have been adjudicated incompetent, incapacitated, or of “unsound mind.”

But the standard to decide whose mind is “unsound” is far from clear. For example, a diagnosis of dementia can encompass a wildly variable population, depending on the point of view of the evaluating professional. And judges usually have no specialized education of their own in psychology.

Whether a person can handle their finances, or retains the ability to drive, are far different questions from whether a person retains enough sense to vote. A citizen who votes for any winning candidate joins the majority of the electorate. Determining, in advance, that one vote of all those is irrational discriminates against that particular voter – when many uninformed voters, who might choose candidates based on the brilliance of their smile, say, would not be subjected to that kind of scrutiny.

How much better it would be, then, to avoid that battle in the first place. With the help of an elder law attorney, you can create an effective power of attorney that will do just this. Give us a call – we would be happy to help!

Special Needs Trusts – What You Need to Know

In general, a trust is created when property or assets are managed by a person or firm for another person’s benefit. The person or entity who manages the trust is known as the “trustee” and is entrusted with the responsibility of making decisions in the best interest of the person who benefits from the trust, known as the beneficiary. Trusts are advantageous because they provide the ability to place conditions on how and when your assets will be distributed when you die, reduce estate and gift taxes, and allow you to skip the lengthy and expensive probate process.

Special needs trusts are a class of trusts made specifically for the benefit of those with physical and/or mental disabilities. These differ from the typical trust due to the special conditions that often need to be in place to accommodate the specific needs and lifestyle of the beneficiary of a special needs trust. Another one of the main reasons for having this type of trust is to ensure the beneficiary does not render him/herself ineligible for government benefits due to an increase in assets.

Choosing the right trustee for a special needs trust is extremely important and the trustee must be someone you are certain will act in the beneficiary’s best interest after your death. Often, this takes place in the form of a trusted family member who knows the beneficiary and his/her needs. However, if your situation doesn’t allow for this, the court will appoint a third party to manage the trust according to your written wishes.

One of the important features of a special needs trust is that the assets in the trust will not be counted toward asset thresholds contained in government programs such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. The trustee has complete control over the assets in the trust, instead of the beneficiary. For this reason, government programs such as SSI and Medicaid ignore assets in a trust when determining eligibility. Many people are unaware of this and make the mistake of distributing their assets to a loved one with special needs through a will. This could cause them to exceed the asset limits for SSI and/or Medicaid, thus losing their benefits from these programs.

Special needs trust may also be set up to take the proceeds from a legal settlement on behalf of the person with special needs. This is important for the same reason as mentioned earlier, to ensure a windfall does not preclude the beneficiary from receiving government benefits. Also, in the event the person with special needs is the one being sued, the funds in the special needs trust are protected from being paid out in damages.

Even if you believe your loved one with special needs will never need government benefits, it is still prudent to consider a special needs trust. Special needs trusts can provide for the unique and specific needs of the beneficiary in ways that other types of trusts cannot. Further, you never know what may happen in the future, especially when you’re no longer around. It may turn out that your loved one needs these government benefits one day and they’ll be glad you provided them this option.

Special needs trusts are an excellent vehicle to ensure your loved one with special needs is taken care of in the event of your passing. However, they can be difficult to set up and it is advised that you consult an elder law attorney who will be able to examine your specific situation and make sure your loved one is taken care of for years to come. If you would like to speak with an attorney regarding your situation, or have questions about something you have read, please do not hesitate to contact our office.

Recognizing and Reporting Elder Abuse

What is Elder Abuse?
Elder abuse is a problem that takes many forms. Unfortunately, many seniors are subjected to elder abuse and often times the abuse goes unreported and the abuser goes unpunished. Elder abuse may take the form of physical abuse, include hitting, striking, beating, kicking, and using excessive force. This may also include the overuse of restraints or drugs.

Emotional or psychological abuse is also a common form of elder abuse. This can be anything that causes emotional pain or distress and may include verbal assaults, intimidation, isolation, humiliation, and harassment.

Neglect is also a common form of abuse in senior citizens. Neglect is when a caregiver fails to provide the necessary care for the senior citizen under their care. In contrast, self-neglect is when a senior citizen who is mentally competent refuses to care for their own needs and causes harm to themselves.

Financial exploitation is yet another form of elder abuse. Financial exploitation is often committed by family members (most common), caregivers, or strangers.

Reporting Suspected Abuse
Adult Protective Services (APS) is often the first to receive reports of or to respond to reports of elder abuse. Their job is to provide for the safety, health, and well-being of elderly and vulnerable adults. The law requires those who work with senior citizens in various capacities to report to APS if they suspect elder abuse. When APS receives reports of abuse or neglect, they have several possible actions or interventions. They are responsible for receiving and investigating reports of elder abuse. They then must evaluate the victim’s risks and assess the victim’s ability to understand their risk and give informed consent. The APS worker can then develop a case plan for the abused elder. Once a case plan has been decided, the case worker can arrange for necessary care, medical attention, and legal consultation. Once this is done Adult Protective Services then monitors the services and evaluates the case.

More serious cases of abuse may be reported directly to police. If a senior is in immediate danger, this may be the best course of action.

Many websites provide information on warning signs of potential physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and financial abuse. If you have a loved one who is a senior citizen, it is important to know the warning signs for abuse. It is also key to stay involved with the caregivers and to make regular visits to check on the care of your senior loved one. The National Adult Protective Services Association, http://www.napsa-now.org/get-informed/ , has important information on different types of abuse, as well as ways to get help in any state