Arizona divorce law

How Does Arizona Divorce Law Affect Your Estate Plan?

Many people come to me with questions about Arizona divorce law and what happens to their assets in the case of a divorce.

Before anything else, I always suggest people change their beneficiary designations and rewrite wills, trusts, or estate plans in the case of divorce. However, accidents can and do happen, and someone may pass away before they are able to make the changes, but after a divorce is finalized. In that case, Arizona has specific laws that apply.

Arizona Divorce Law and Your Will

In the event you divorce and something happens to you, your will remains valid. Your ex-spouse, however, is no longer considered a potential beneficiary, fiduciary, executor, guardian, or trustee for your estate. You must be careful here because a separation decree will not disqualify your spouse. In addition, an ex-spouse is removed as an agent for financial or healthcare power of attorney documents, although a power of attorney remains valid unless another person is willing to service in that role.

Life Insurance Following Divorce

What happens to life insurance benefits? Arizona divorce law will automatically disqualify the ex-spouse as a beneficiary unless specifically stated otherwise in a new beneficiary designation filed after the divorce.

The same is true for pay-on-death, transfer-on-death, or in-trust-for designations. With these, the ex-spouse is disqualified. Therefore, it is important to change all your beneficiary designations once the divorce becomes final, just in case your ex tries to collect before any changes are made.

Divorce and Estate Planning

When it comes to profit sharing plans, 401(k)s, and other ERISA plans, the person named as the beneficiary will receive the assets. In short, if an ex-spouse remains as beneficiary, he or she will receive the benefits. Again, it is important to remember to update all beneficiary designations on everything after a divorce.

That being said, the distribution of IRAs assets is more confusing. The IRA custodian will treat the ex-spouse as the beneficiary if there has been no knowledge of the divorce. Despite Arizona divorce law disqualifying the ex from receiving benefits, there has been precedent for an ex-spouse to contest the matter in court and win.

Living Trusts

A living trust has similar rules as a will. For a joint marital property trust, each spouse will be treated as having predeceased the other. That means if one spouse passes away before the divorce settlement is final, half the community and separate property would be distributed to the beneficiaries. For separate property trusts, the ex-spouse is disqualified as a potential beneficiary or trustee.

As for property held in joint tenancy, it will automatically convert to tenancy-in-common. In short, the property will no longer go automatically to the survivor. The property will now be subject to probate, and the court will decide how to award it.

Questions about Your Estate Plan and Arizona Divorce Law?

At the Poulos Law Firm, we recommend clients review their estate plans annually. This way, if there are any issues, you’ll be able to manage them in a timely manner. Otherwise, you may end up having an estate plan that doesn’t suit you or your family.

If you have questions about how Arizona divorce law affects your estate plan, please schedule an appointment with our office. We’re happy to talk with you about your unique needs and ensure your legacy is protected.

getting divorced

Getting Divorced? 8 Estate Planning Steps

There are no two ways about it: getting divorced is an exceptionally emotional time. In addition to the emotional highs and lows, there are the legalities to address. You have an overwhelming number of decisions to make and things you should think about it.

It’s hard to even consider that list of tasks when all you really want to do is crawl into bed and pull the covers over your head.

However, taking certain steps now will help prevent even more potential pain down the road. We’ve all heard the horror stories of angry, soon-to-be-ex-spouses cleaning out bank accounts, moving assets, and destroying documents. You don’t want to be a statistic.

Though your spouse has certain rights throughout the divorce process, you do want to control your assets as much as possible. Here are 8 steps you should and can take immediately while getting divorced:

Step 1: Review Pre- or Post-nuptial Agreements

You set up these documents for good reason. Now is the time to unearth them and start to take a look at them. Be sure that you are sharing any agreements with your attorney as soon as possible so that your rights are protected.

Step 2: Determine What You Can—and Cannot—Change Now

Although you may be ready to make all kinds of changes as soon as you’ve determined you’re getting divorced, you must ensure you’re within the limits of the law. While some documents can be altered now, others cannot.

For instance, you cannot change the beneficiary designations on life insurance, retirement accounts, pension plans, or 401K plans. You also cannot remove family members from your health insurance. You can, however, file a complaint for divorce which will put a hold on all assets.

Step 3: Healthcare and Power of Attorney

While you are getting divorced, you can immediately change the name of the person you’d like to look after your health and finances (power of attorney documents) in case of accident and before the divorce is final. You are required to revoke the power of attorney and execute a new one and provide notice to your soon-to-be-ex of the change.

Step 4: Update Your Will, Estate Plan, and Trusts

If your state allows you to execute a new will, trust, or estate plan during the divorce proceedings, you should do so. Usually in a divorce, the court will issue a preliminary injunction, which requires that certain things such as assets and moving are prevented. Until you are divorced, you are obviously still married, so this injunction may prevent you from changing your estate plan documents and requires a conversation with your divorce attorney first.

However, once the court enters a judgment of divorce, spouses are automatically disqualified as a beneficiary and as a fiduciary (e.g., trustee, personal representative). This does not, however, apply to pensions, 401(k), profit sharing, and other retirement plans. Arizona law does not protect you, so you must notify them of your divorce and change beneficiaries.

IRAs are a little different. Even though Arizona law protects you, IRA custodians may not be willing to follow that law if they are not notified of the divorce. You should also probably immediately change death beneficiaries on life insurance and bank accounts, just to be sure.

Step 5: Decide What to Leave Your Ex

In some cases, you may not wish to disinherit your spouse from all assets or benefits. This is particularly true if you share joint care of a special needs child who will require care and support into the future.

Special needs estate planning is an in-depth topic and one that cannot be fully covered here. Be sure to consult your estate planning attorney for assistance if this relates to your situation.

This is just one instance where you might choose to leave assets to an ex-spouse, particularly if the divorce was fairly amicable, but there may be others. Now’s the time to consider.

Step 6: Revisit and Review

Once the divorce is final, you should go back and review all beneficiary designations, draw up a new will, trust, or estate plan, and make any final changes to power of attorney documents. At that point, you’ll be able to designate beneficiaries and draw up new documents.

If You Are Getting Divorced, Trust Your Estate Planning to Poulos Law Firm

While the emotional aspect of getting divorced is tumultuous, and you have many aspects to consider legally, now is not the time to neglect your estate plan. Poulos Law Firm has years of experience assisting individuals and families through this trying time to ensure that your loved ones’ future is secure.

Contact us to schedule your initial consultation and learn how getting divorced affects your estate.

what is a trust protector

What Is a Trust Protector?

A trust is a way to help you control who will receive distributions of your wealth—on your terms. A well-crafted trust can preserve your legacy after you die, as well as help your family avoid the hassle of probate court. While you now understand this important legal document, the next question is: what is a trust protector?

What Is a Trust Protector?

Generally, when you create a trust, you name a trustee, or trustees, to help enforce the terms of the document. It’s always a good idea to have extra protection to ensure your wishes are carried out. In addition to a trustee, you can also name a trust protector. What is a trust protector? It is an independent third party or institution who provides oversight of the trustees and funds.

Sadly, where money is concerned, trustees are not always trustworthy. Often, the more money, the more likely a trustee is to abuse his or her responsibilities.

When you name a protector, it has to be someone other than a trustee. In fact, a trust protector can never be named a trustee. This is a good way to prevent the protector from becoming greedy.

The Job of a Trust Protector

The third-party trust protector can be granted limited or expansive duties. At a bare minimum, the protector should have the power to remove and replace existing trustees. Failure to do so means that if a trustee dies and no replacement has been designated, the court will step in and pick one. And as you’re likely well aware, when the courts get involved, they don’t always choose the person or people you might have designated.

In addition, the trust protector can be given the power to settle disputes among co-trustees, or between trustees and beneficiaries, and even to alter trust provisions due to unanticipated circumstances (for instance, changes in the economy or tax laws), and even dissolve the trust.

The Importance of a Well-constructed Trust

If you are setting up a trust that will continue for decades, designating a protector can be critical. If given broad powers, the trust protector (most likely an institution) will be able to adapt the terms of the trust through the generations. In addition, in some states, including Arizona, the trust protector may exercise these powers without the need for court approval.

Beyond Designating Your Protector

A trust protector is entitled to be compensated for the service he/she/it provides on behalf of the trustees and beneficiaries. Therefore, it is your responsibility to determine how that will occur and to clearly document the process in the trust. That means you’ll need to designate the funds for this role.

If you have already created a trust and it does not have a protector, the trust can be reformed. The consent of all parties is required to do so, but it certainly is possible.

As you are creating (or amending) your trust, you will be best served by utilizing the services of an experienced estate attorney. At Poulos Law Firm, we understand all aspects of creating a trust to ensure your heirs are protected and your estate goes where you want it to go. Contact us to schedule an appointment to learn more about trusts as well as in-depth information on what is a trust protector.

leave assets to minor children

How Do I Leave Assets to Minor Children?

What would happen to your young children should something happen to you? Have you named a guardian in your will? Have you created income streams or designated specific assets to see to their well-being into the future? If you want to leave assets to minor children, you need to plan for it now.

Common Mistakes Parents Make

One of the most common mistakes parents make is to assume that, by naming a guardian for their minor children in their will, the guardian will automatically be granted access to the estate assets to take care of the children. Unfortunately, that’s not what happens.

Unless you have your wishes clearly—and legally—outlined, the court will control how your estate is to leave assets to minor children. The guardian isn’t the one to control that inheritance. And this control is enforced until the child reaches the age of majority, either 18 or 21.

Upon achieving that magic age, your child will receive the entire inheritance. If you think back to how much sense you had at age 18, you might have some serious reservations about placing a lot of money at your child’s disposal.

Legal Requirements for Bequeathing to Minors

When the court is involved in distribution of assets to your children, they will have requirements. Every time your child’s guardian wants to use money from the fund, they’ll need to document it. Those expenses will then be audited and approved by the court.

In addition, each time money is requested from the estate, an attorney has to be appointed to represent the minor child in court. Naturally, the attorney’s fees will be deducted from the funds you’ve left behind. That can eat away at their inheritance quickly.

If relatives leave assets to minor children, the same rigamarole will occur. The court will step in to protect the child’s interests—even when the parents are still alive. This happens when a minor child is named as a direct heir, especially of high-dollar assets.

How to Properly Leave Assets to Minor Children

Children’s Trust

There has to be a better alternative, right? One option is to create a children’s trust as part of your estate plan. In the trust, you will designate a person who will manage how you leave assets to minor children. That takes power back from the court and keeps it with a trusted friend or family member.

Of course, in this scenario, you can still decide when or if your child will inherit, as well as the conditions under which they will do so. Keep in mind, however, that this provision won’t go into effect until you die. It will not occur if you are incapacitated.

Revocable Living Trust

Another option—and probably the best—is to create a revocable living trust.

A revocable living trust is extremely flexible and allows you to take each of your children’s needs and circumstances into account. You don’t parent all of your kids the same, so why would you leave assets to minor children in the same way? Here, you’ll appoint a trustee, who will manage the inheritance until your children reach the age you want them to have full access to the funds.

Plus, with a revocable living trust, all of the provisions hold when you are incapacitated as well.

When you choose a smart way to leave assets to minor children, they are protected from the courts, creditors, divorce, and even their own excess. And your revocable trust can be amended at any time. If you have second thoughts about a provision or change your mind about the trustee, making modifications is easy through a trust amendment document. In the unfortunate instance that your child predeceases you, you can also dissolve the entire document.

Poulos Law Firm Helps You Leave Assets to Minor Children

It can be disconcerting to think about dying and leaving your children. But it can be even worse for them to leave them ill prepared for their future should you pass away unexpectedly. Being prepared is the best gift you can leave to your minor children.

At Poulos Law Firm, we help you make plans that protect your children and family. Contact us to schedule a consultation and learn more about how to properly leave assets to minor children.

I Signed a Deed Disclaimer and my Spouse Died – Oh No!

I Signed a Deed Disclaimer and my Spouse Died – Oh No!

What are we talking about here? In Arizona, any assets purchased during the marriage are presumed to be community property. One exception is when one spouse signs a disclaimer deed as part of a real estate transaction. This situation usually arises when the couple purchases a home, and one spouse has much better credit than the other spouse. It can also happen when one spouse is putting up all of the money from their own separate funds and want to keep it that way.

We recently received a question from a person concerned about a spousal disclaimer signed by a relative. This involved the effect of a disclaimer deed after death. The man had signed a spousal disclaimer so his wife could purchase a house under her name. He did this because the wife had good credit and he had poor credit. The home was purchased during their marriage. The wife recently died from a stroke and the concerned person asked if the man still has any rights to the house as a surviving spouse. There was no Will and they have two adult sons.

Probate is different than divorce.
• In a divorce the husband would probably not be entitled to the house because it is separate property unless he could prove other factors that might entitle him to some of the house such as the source of the funds or other financial considerations.
• Probate is Different.
o Where there is a will. If there was a Will, that would control what happened to the estate (and the house). The wife could leave the house to whomever she wanted, but the husband might be entitled to a certain percentage of her estate as you cannot totally disinherit your spouse.
o Where there is no Will, probate is guided by intestate rules. In short, the husband receives half of any community property and all of his spouses separate property. This true unless the wife had children from another relationship. In that case the husband gets half and the step children get the other half.

Is There a Solution? Yes. The best alternative is when the spouse’s credit is repaired to ask the bank to add the spouse to the title and mortgage. In some cases, with appropriate counsel, a quit claim deed putting the spouse on the title may be appropriate. A review of the mortgage or deed of trust would be in order to do this properly.

Don’t Forget about this. We see many instances where this is forgotten and only comes up when the spouse dies creating unnecessary legal issues about the effect of the disclaimer deed after death. We also see people use self-help with on-line forms only to create title nightmares. Don’t be that couple.

Your Estate Plan May Be Worthless

WHAT!? Why? There are eight reasons why the estate plan you thought was fine may not ensure that your wishes are carried out.

1. Missing Parts of the Plan

You may be missing some critical parts of an effective estate plan. At a minimum, all clients should have a Will, financial power of attorney, and an advanced medical directive, that have been reviewed by an attorney within the last few years or after any major recent life event changes.

2. Outdated Information

You have not updated your beneficiaries or executors since you created the plan. We get it! Thinking about dying is depressing, but you have to if you want to make sure that your wishes are carried out. That means adding grandchild or removing beneficiaries who may have passed away. Certainly, you want to make sure the executor of your estate is someone you trust, able to serve and still alive and kicking.

3. Forgotten to Allocate Ownership of Valuables

You may have forgotten to include the ownership of jewelry, family heirlooms, paintings or even recently acquired valuable items in your estate plan. Not detailing who gets what is likely to end up with the family embroiled in a war on who gets ownership of your engagement ring or that Monet painting.

4. Neglected Life Insurance Beneficiaries and IRA’s

You may have forgotten to review your life insurance policies and IRA’s for years. What happens if you’ve divorced and remarried, but your old insurance policy names the first spouse as beneficiary? What happens if the policy hasn’t been funded properly and has lapsed? What if your beneficiary should not receive an outright distribution

5. Named a Family Member or Close Friend as Trustee

Naming someone you trust to be your executor or trustee is good idea, however, you must also make sure the person is aware of what the role requires and the fiduciary responsibilities it entails. We often see people named as executors or trustees who are unprepared to accept the role or are even incapable of carrying it out. You might consider appointing a third party, such as a Licensed Fiduciary or trust company to administer your estate. Yes it hurts to pay for this service, but you may save money and hurt feelings instead.

6. Tax Laws Have Changed

It should come as no surprise that tax laws change all the time. Estates created, but not amended to take these changes into account, can cause significant loss of wealth for your beneficiaries.

7. Passing Retirement Accounts to the Estate Rather Then to the Individual

There are significant benefits to passing on retirement savings through a beneficiary designation. Passing directly to a beneficiary avoids the probate process, which saves time and costs and beneficiaries are permitted to keep the majority of the assets in the tax-advantaged accounts.

8. You Moved to a New State

Every state has different laws for governing estate plans. If you move to a new state, it is critical you have an estate planning attorney review your documents to ensure you are in compliance with specific state laws.

In short, estate planning isn’t a one-time process. In general, you should review your estate plan after any major life event, or every few years to make sure your estate remains in compliance with local, state and federal law.

Eight Things to do When a Person Dies

When someone passes away, it is always an emotional time for family members. Unfortunately, it is also a time when someone in the family should think clearly, because there are things you should do immediately that will help make the experience easier for everyone in the family.

#1: Get Access to the Home

Gaining access to the home or apartment may be tricky, especially if you don’t have keys. A landlord of a rental property may or may not allow you access without court approval and you may need to enter the premises in the presence of a municipal employees.

Once you are there, you may only be allowed in once, so get everything you need immediately. Gather everything valuable – jewelry, family heirlooms, artwork, etc. Maybe even find that coffee can of money stashed under the mattress, and put it all in a safety deposit box or turn it over to the executor of the estate. Make a list of all valuables that you removed or put that iPhone to work and take pictures.

#2: Find the Documents

Once in the home, gain access to all the important documents you might need … that includes banks accounts, tax returns, insurance documents, financial statements, credit cards, retirement plans and more. That might means digging through tons of paperwork in the home to find what you need.

#3: Change the Locks

Once you have access to the property, you should have the locks changed. You never know who might have a key.

#4: Freeze all Financial Accounts

Protect the assets by freezing all financial accounts. This will stop any automatic payments of bills, and prevent scammers from stealing mail, accessing credit card info and more.

#5 Forward Mail

Go to the post office and have the deceased mail forwarded to you or to the executor of the estate. This is the best way to get information about accounts and other matters. You may require a letter from the administering attorney stating your authority.

#6: Deal with Utilities

If the deceased owned a home, you’ll need to decide what to do about utilities (turn off gas, water, electric, phone, etc.). If the deceased rented a property, work with the landlord to make decisions about the apartment. Keeping the property maintained during this time is important.

#7 Hire an Attorney and Accountant

Unless you want to do all the legal work and prepare the tax returns personally, hire an attorney and an accountant to help you prepare all the documents that will be needed to close out the estate.

#8 Talk to Family

It is important to talk to other family members and heirs so that you all agree on a course of action to take with the estate. Working together in probate matters saves time and money; contesting an estate can lead to huge legal fees, long wait times, and severe disruption of the family.

Can Creditors Grab Probate Assets?

When someone passes away, one of the first questions I am often asked is if creditors can take part of the estate assets to settle debts. Another related question is whether or not the heirs are personally responsible for paying things like credit card bills, the mortgage, phone and power bills, etc.

Probate and Trusts
First, let’s talk about how probate works. When someone passes away, assets that are in the name of the deceased only and which have no beneficiary or payable on death go into probate. If the deceased had a joint bank account or joint tenant rights on a home with his or her spouse for example, then the asset pass directly to the joint account holder outside of probate.

Who pays the bills?
So now let’s answer what rights creditor have against estate assets. A creditor can file a claim against an estate for payment of a debt – credit cards, mortgage, and other outstanding debts. The heirs are not directly responsible for paying the debts from their own pocket. The executor or personal representative must pay the creditors from probate assets before final distribution of money is made to the heirs. If all assets are used to pay estate debts, then the heirs receive no disbursement of funds.

Be warned that if the executor makes the mistake of distributing funds before a creditor can fil a claim or lawsuit against the heirs for the return of the money, or against the executor if the individual refuses to file a petition to have the heir turn over the money to the estate.

What if there are no probate assets?
So what happens if there is no probate money to pay creditors? This might happen if all of the assets were in joint names or had beneficiaries. In this case, a creditor may look to those non-probate assets to pay debts. Let’s assume that an individual put assets into a joint bank account that would pass to the surviving spouse or heir in order to avoid payment of the debt. The creditor can file a claim for that that or creditors could demand that the heirs (beneficiaries) who inherited those assets use them to pay some or all of the debt. This is not likely to happen unless the debt is substantially enough to motivate the creditor to go down this road.

Keep in mind that not all assets are handled the same way. Retirement accounts and insurance proceeds with designated beneficiaries provide more protection from creditors. Money in revocable trusts are generally subject to creditor claims, while assets in irrevocable trusts – when structured properly – are generally exempt from such claims.

If you would like to learn more about how to protect your estate from creditors, please feel free to give us a call.

End of Life Planning: Preserving Quality

We lawyers prepare powers-of-attorney documents so that when our clients can no longer act for themselves, the documents will convey on other trusted people the authority to act on our clients’ behalf.

But when it comes to actually using those documents at the time of a health-care crisis, clear and powerful documents are just the beginning. The decision-points can (and must) be put down on paper in advance, but when it comes to end-of-life situations, the clarity on which we lawyers thrive can be very hard to find.

Sitting in her lawyer’s office, the client may have been quite certain about health-care decisions. She does not want her life prolonged by a battery of aggressive treatments, where these would not preserve her quality of life. She does not want blood transfusions, dialysis, repeated courses of antibiotics and chemotherapy, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or breathing and feeding tubes. She does not want to die inert in the ICU, surrounded by machines and strangers. She wants to die at home, surrounded by loved ones, at a time when she retains presence of mind to make her peace.

But that goal doesn’t just happen from wishing it and stating it. It happens with additional careful preparation for the realities. As the end of life approaches, the clarity we lawyers enjoy can be elusive. When a person gets a prognosis of two to five years (maybe), where, along that continuum, would be the time to start declining aggressive treatment? When there’s always one more intervention that may (or may not) produce a good result? When one decision could create an ever-widening array of complications? When, step by step, the patient becomes less and less able to exercise autonomy, and where treatment decisions by caregivers are not in line with the care the patient was clear about when she was sitting in the lawyer’s office?

No matter how clear the powers-of-attorney documents, with all these imponderables, the patient can end up in a situation many miles away from what she wanted. And there’s no possible do-over.

Powerful and clear power-of-attorney documents are an essential first step and we lawyers are glad to take care of that part. Beyond that, though, thorough preparation is essential.

Consider that the best result may be one that cares for comfort right now, in the moment. The question is not necessarily about how long life can be prolonged. The question may be, rather, how comfort can be maintained – in this moment, and then the next moment, and the next. The question is how life can be made better right now. Watch a video by palliative-care physician B.J. Miller, on why this is so important, here.

Make concrete plans. These include specifying what you want to happen if you’re no longer able to live independently; choosing wisely whom you want to act for you, to make sure your plans will be followed; being ready with your health-care documents before you find yourself deposited in the emergency room or ICU; and seeking the reassurance that your loved ones will be cared-for when you’re no longer there. Judy MacDonald Johnson has prepared simple, forthright worksheets to help with this process, here. She speaks about these worksheets in this moving video.

There is no doubt that the process in safeguarding quality of life at the end of it is possibly the most challenging of all. But if that process can create as much pleasure as possible through an extremely difficult time of life, and if forthrightly engaging in that process would facilitate a passing more in line with what we would envision, the worth of the process will be felt. The transition will be smoother and more meaningful for the dying person, and a kinder legacy will be left behind for those who accompany us on this journey.
Please don’t hesitate to reach out if we can help you or a loved one with a health care plan.

Appropriate Documents For End-of-Life Care Decisions

You may think your living will is in order, including instructions regarding resuscitation commonly referred to as a DNR (do not resuscitate). While your wishes in a living will may be appropriately documented, that does not guarantee the instructions will be carried out as you stated. The frightening truth is that mistakes about your end-of-life instructions are made while you are at your most vulnerable. Dr. Monica Williams-Murphy, medical director of advance-care planning and end-of-life education for Huntsville Hospital Health System in Alabama has said, “Unfortunately, misunderstandings involving documents meant to guide end-of-life decision-making are surprisingly common.”

The underlying problem is that doctors and nurses have little if any training at all in understanding and interpreting living wills, DNR orders, and Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) forms. Couple the medical professionals’ lack of training with communication breakdowns in high-stress environments like a hospital emergency ward where life and death decisions are often made within minutes, and you have scenarios that can lead to disastrous consequences.

In some instances, mix-ups in end-of-life document interpretation have seen doctors resuscitate patients that do not wish to be. In other cases, medical personnel may not revive a patient when there is the instruction to do so resulting in their death. Still other cases of “near misses” occur where problems were identified and corrected before there was a chance to cause permanent harm.

There are some frightening worst-case scenarios, yet you are still better off with legal end-of-life documents than without them. It is imperative to understand the differences between them and at what point in your life you may change your choices based on your age or overall health. To understand all of the options available it’s important to meet with trusted counsel for document preparation and to review your documented decisions often as you age. In particular, have discussions with your physician and your appointed medical decision-maker about your end-of-life documents and reiterate what your expectations are. These discussions bring about an understanding of your choices before you may have an unforeseen adverse health event, and provides you the best advocates while you are unable to speak for yourself.

There are several documents that may be appropriate as part of your overall plan. Each of those are discussed below, and we are available to answer any questions you may have about them.
A living will is a document that allows you to express your wishes about your end-of-life care. For example, you can document whether you want to be given food and hydration to be kept comfortable, or whether you want to be kept alive by artificial means.

A living will is not a binding medical order and thus will allow medical staff to interpret the document based on the situation at hand. Input from your family and your designated living will appointee are also taken into account in your best decision making strategy while you are incapacitated. A living will becomes activated when a person is terminally ill and unconscious or in a permanent vegetative state. Terminal illness is defined as an illness from which a person is not expected to recover even though they are receiving treatment. If your illness can be treated this would be regarded as a critical but not terminal illness and would not activate the terms of your living will.

Do not resuscitate orders (DNRs) are binding medical orders that are signed by a physician. This order has a specific application to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and directs medical professionals to either administer chest compression techniques or not in the event you stop breathing or your heart stops beating. While your living will may express a preference regarding CPR it is not the same thing as a DNR order. A DNR order is specifically for a person who has gone into cardiac arrest and has no application to other medical assistance such as mechanical ventilation, defibrillation, intubation, medical testing, intravenous antibiotic or other medical treatments. Unfortunately, many DNR orders are wrongly interpreted by medical professionals to mean not to treat at all.

Physician orders for life-sustaining treatment forms (POLST forms) are specific sets of medical orders for a seriously ill or frail patient who may not survive a year. This form must be signed by a physician, physician assistant or nurse practitioner to be legally binding. The form will vary from state to state and of the three instructive documents the POLST is the most detailed about a patient’s prognosis, goals, and values, as well as the potential benefits and risks various treatment options may bring about.

A power of attorney for health care decision, sometimes referred to as a health care directive, allows you to name an agent to make decisions for you if you are unable to. Unlike a living will which only covers end-of-life decisions, a power of attorney for health care decisions allows the agent to act at any time that you cannot make decisions for yourself.

We can help you determine which documents best suit your current needs, and help you clearly state your wishes in those documents. We look forward to hearing from you and helping you with these important planning steps.

A Power of Attorney Protects Your Right to Vote

Your right to vote is a fundamental lynchpin of what it means to be a citizen – yet you could lose your right if you become a ward in a guardianship. Having a strong power of attorney is essential to avoid that drastic, but little-known, consequence.

A power of attorney gives a trusted person the authority to act on your behalf. Support like that is especially important if there is any question that you might have become unable to make decisions for yourself. Sometimes, however, that situation is far from clear. Elderly people can be dragged into unnecessary guardianship proceedings not of their choice.

This can happen, for example, if you are temporarily hospitalized and a not-so-friendly person – maybe related to you by a second marriage – sees an opportunity to seize control of your finances. Any adult person can file a petition seeking a guardianship. If you had designated your trusted agent before hospitalization, your agent could defend against that kind of predatory danger.

The danger is real. You could lose not only your money and your independence, but also your right to vote. For example, until relatively recently a provision in the Arkansas Constitution stated that “no idiot or insane person shall be entitled to the privileges of an elector.” That provision had the force of law until 2009. And again in Arkansas, once a person is placed in a guardianship, court approval is required before the ward is permitted to vote. Laws like these are by no means exceptional. Many states disqualify from voting persons who have been adjudicated incompetent, incapacitated, or of “unsound mind.”

But the standard to decide whose mind is “unsound” is far from clear. For example, a diagnosis of dementia can encompass a wildly variable population, depending on the point of view of the evaluating professional. And judges usually have no specialized education of their own in psychology.

Whether a person can handle their finances, or retains the ability to drive, are far different questions from whether a person retains enough sense to vote. A citizen who votes for any winning candidate joins the majority of the electorate. Determining, in advance, that one vote of all those is irrational discriminates against that particular voter – when many uninformed voters, who might choose candidates based on the brilliance of their smile, say, would not be subjected to that kind of scrutiny.

How much better it would be, then, to avoid that battle in the first place. With the help of an elder law attorney, you can create an effective power of attorney that will do just this. Give us a call – we would be happy to help!

Retirement Challenges Facing Women

For women, securing enough retirement income can be a daunting proposition. Generally speaking, women face two significant hurdles to overcome to achieve a comfortable flow of retirement income. One hurdle involves longevity, and the second deals with earning power.
Women have a longer life expectancy than men do in the US. The Social Security Administration has cited that “a women who turns 65 today can expect to live, on average, until 86.6, compared with age 84.3 for a man.”
Those statistics, being only averages, indicate that about 25% of those turning 65 will live past the age of 90 and even 10% will surpass age 95. That means roughly 35% of women turning age 65 today will live an additional 5 to 10 years past the SSA reported average longevity.
To avoid running out of money, retirement planning for women has to specifically address and strategize how to maintain retirement income well into their 80s and 90s. The most natural solution to avoid running out of money is to accumulate as much savings and investments early in life while working is a viable option. Reliance on a Social Security check to cover some expenses is not a certainty as the solvency and sustainability of the program is in question.
“As a result of changes to Social Security enacted in 1983, benefits are now expected to be payable in full on a timely basis until 2037, when the trust fund reserves are projected to become exhausted.”
That is 19 years away, the day a woman turning 65 today would turn 84 years old.
If you are a woman 60 or older, you are at the forefront of a significant change in social security. The full retirement age (FRA), when you can collect your entire earned benefit, has been changed from 66 to 67. The implementation of this change will occur in two-month increments over the next six years. Essentially this means you will be receiving a reduced benefit. According to Jim Blankenship, the new reality is that as the FRA goes up “At every age along the line you are receiving a smaller benefit than you would have before assuming the same work record.”
The new reality is that a Social Security check as partial retirement income is no longer a “sure bet.” Even if the program remains solvent after 2037, the current reduction of benefits and cost of living adjustments (COLA) will not be a substantive retirement income strategy for women who live well into their 80s and 90s.
The second significant hurdle women face is that the earning power of women is still not equal to that of men. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research reports that women earn about 82 percent of what men make during a similar week of work. Among women of color, African American and Hispanic, the number was even lower at 60 percent and 55 percent respectively, as compared to a white male.
One strategy women can employ to combat this problem is to retool to jobs that have minimum wage gaps between male and female.
Changing the field in which a woman works boosts her earning power, increases her paycheck, increases her ability to save and invest more, and increases the social security benefit payable to her provided the system remains intact.
Women can also help themselves meet retirement challenges by planning early on with trusted counsel to set structure to achieve financial goals. Goals should include how best to manage personal income, IRAs, 401(k)s and benefits as well as any possible inheritance from a spouse or a parent. Inherited assets can change into retirement generating assets for future income.
Contact our office today and schedule an appointment to discuss how we can help you with your planning.

Lost Will and Testament

You wouldn’t believe how often a Last Will and Testament goes missing.

You also wouldn’t believe what a mess that causes for the heirs.

Most people think it is enough to keep their Will in a convenient place at home. However, that isn’t enough security for so important a document. For instance, what happens if those important papers were to perish in a fire or a flood, or if one of your heirs decides to steal the papers in order to cause problems upon your death? (of course that would never happen in your family…..) Or, if the dog ate it? Anything is possible.

That’s why you should consider placing an original signed document in a safe deposit box or other safe and secure location. In addition, it is important to also make sure to provide your Personal Representative (Executor) with sufficient information to help them find the Last Will and Testament. And don’t forget to tell them how to access it (e.g. keys, pass code).

Even more important, keep track of your original copy over the years. Do you know exactly where your Last Will and Testament (or Trust Documents) are right this second? If not, find them and put them in a place you will remember.

By the way, in Arizona, if your original Will cannot be found there is a presumption that you REVOKED IT! This will create an absolute and expensive mess as your family struggles with trying to prove that you did not revoke the Will, that a copy is valid and what your intentions were. Add to that if your Will was poorly drafted – everything you hoped to avoid is out the window.

By the way most courts no longer accept Wills for filing. And….most attorneys will not keep your original either anymore. So, it’s on you to do the safekeeping.

Without an original copy of a signed Will, your final wishes may be called into question and if your will is not accepted for probate, the estate will be considered “intestate” and your property may go to people you did not intend. Oops!

What if the plane goes down with the whole family?

Yuck what a thought! But every estate plan should address this possibility.

Most people plan to pass their assets on to the next generation … to their sons or daughters or grandchildren. However, sometimes the worst possible scenario can happen. The whole family, including the heirs to the estate, pass away in the same accident. What happens if the whole family dies in a car crash while on vacation together? How can you possibly plan for something like that? The answer is to designate a contingent beneficiary, and a good estate planning attorney will make sure you think about all the possibilities.

A remote contingent beneficiary is a party who will receive a benefit through your will or trust if a specific event of condition takes place. This is a way to have a backup plan, just in case the unthinkable happens. The remote contingent beneficiary could be a person or persons, a group or a charity.

One word of caution … you’ll need to take extra care if you have someone with special needs who could inherit. If you name them as a contingency beneficiary, you’ll want to make sure to arrange matters so that your generosity doesn’t interrupt any government benefits the person may be receiving. Imagine a scenario where Bill and Jane were both divorced and had families by previous marriages. They have now married and combined their families. Bill has a child with special needs. He has worked with an estate planning attorney to ensure that his assets won’t interrupt his child’s Medicaid benefits. However, Jane’s will simply states that her assets will go to her husband first, and then to her contingency beneficiaries — the children. If she doesn’t change her will, then the special needs child will inherit and negate the Medicaid benefits.

Don’t think that a tragedy can’t happen to you and the ones you love. A good estate plan will take into account all possibilities, even the tragic ones. Granted, the odds are likely in your favor that your heirs will inherit just as you planned, but the job of an estate planning attorney is to make sure that your Will or Trust is drafted so that things turn out the way you want.

Or you can just let the abandoned property department in your state get the money…….

Uncomfortable Questions No One Wants to Answer

Thinking about death is uncomfortable and thinking about our own death is something all of us tend to avoid with a passion. It also explains why so many people are reluctant to take on the task of estate planning. Still, there are some uncomfortable questions you do need to ask yourself before it is too late.

Here’s a list of questions to think about as you begin the estate planning process:
1. Who will raise your children if both parents die? If you haven’t named a guardian, the court will do it for you.
2. Who you look after your pets when you die?
3. What happens if you and your heirs all die in the same accident? Who will inherit your assets then?
4. Are their other descendants that may come out of the woodwork when you die? Unexpected claimants can cause all kinds of financial and emotional grief.
5. Have you named someone to look after your financial and medical matters if you become incapacitated? These are known as durable power of attorney, and don’t have to be the same person.
6. If you are incapacitated and placed on life support, when do your family to cease heroic measures to sustain your life?
7. Have you left a record of your usernames, logins, passwords and security questions to important accounts (bank, financial accounts, etc.) in a safe place where your heirs can access them?
8. Do you want to provide for children born from stored genetic material (embryos, eggs or sperm)? If so, how many years do you want to leave a window open for a birth?
9. If you are changing gender, documents that show two different sexes can cause all kinds of problems. Make sure to disclose such a change and to change all documentation.
10. Gifts over $15,000 per person per year must be reported on a federal gift tax return. Have you made any such large gifts or do you plan to make any in the future?
11. Have you ever entered into a pre- or post-nuptial agreement? Have you ever signed a community property agreement?
12. Do you have any serious or chronic health issues? Your answer may change how an estate planning attorney approaches your Will or Trust.

While these are some of the important issues to consider, every person has their own unique circumstances and concerns. An experienced estate planning attorney can help you think over all the issues and create a plan that allows you to protect your loved ones and pass on your assets in the way you want.